Iscove’s is DMEM with additional amino acids and vitamins, also containing selenium and HEPES buffer. This is the first medium to contain HEPES for buffering capacity. Ferric nitrate normally included in DMEM is replaced with potassium nitrate in Iscove’s. Iscove’s is a highly enriched synthetic medium optimized for rapidly proliferating, high cell density cultures. The addition of albumin and transferrin may be required, depending on the cell type. Produced with L-glutamine and 25 mM HEPES without b-thioglycerol, b-mercaptoethanol, and sodium bicarbonate.