Antibodies represent an important tool in basic research as well as in diagnostic and more frequently in therapeutic applications. There are many methods, based on the unique binding capacity and the ability of antibodies to detect, identify or localize the specific target. Antibodies might be divided into primary antibodies, which recognize a specific target, and secondary antibodies, which bind to primary antibodies. Based on their origin, antibodies might be monoclonal, polyclonal or recombinant.
Chemically, antibodies are proteins with molecular weight around 150 kDa, carrying sugar (glycan) residues. Structurally they form a “Y” shape with 2 heavy and 2 light polypeptide chains. Every antibody has a constant domain, which is same for all antibodies of the same isotype, and a variable domain.
A monoclonal antibody is a product of a single clone of hybridoma cells and represents a homologous population in which all antibodies recognize the same antigen sequence. Polyclonal antibodies are a mixture of several antibody clones and therefore recognize or bind to more than one specific antigen sequence. Monoclonal antibodies are very specific and are valued for their low lot-to-lot variability. Polyclonal antibodies could provide a stronger signal, which can be useful when detecting low-expressed antigens or when working with proteins in their native state. A certain disadvantage of polyclonal antibodies can be the variation between produced batches and therefore poorer reproducibility, however both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies find their place in research laboratories.
Szabo-Scandic offers a broad range of antibodies for all applications including immunoblotting (Western blot), flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassays and functional assays.